e

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e in sitelen pona
e in sitelen sitelen
Pronunciation /e/
Usage 2023: Core (100% → )2022: Core (100%)
Book and era nimi pu
Part of speech Particle
Codepoint 󱤉 U+F1909

e is a particle that introduces the target of an action. It is part of the predicate and introduces a direct object.

Function[edit | edit source]

e marks the verb's direct object, the thing to which the subject of the sentence does the action. A verb with a direct object is called a transitive verb.[1] When the action has more than one target, the particle e introduces each new direct object.

jan li wile alasa e mi

jan li wile alasa e mi[.][2]

Someone wants to hunt me.

ale li ken lukin e ona e pona ona e wawa ona

ale li ken lukin e ona, e pona ona, e wawa ona![3]

Everyone could see them, their goodness, [and] their might!

Confusion with preposition marker[edit | edit source]

e does not introduce the object of a preposition.

mi lon ma kasi 

mi lon ma kasi.

I am in a land of plants.

If e is used in that position, it invokes a non-prepositional sense of the word.

mi lon e ma kasi

mi lon e ma kasi.

I created the land of plants.

This distinction extends to transitive prepositional phrases, a nonstandard grammatical construction. Speakers who use this style use e to introduce the direct object of the prepositional phrase.

mi lon ma e kasi.

mi lon ma e kasi.

I put-in-the-soil the plants.

Definitions[edit | edit source]

pu[edit | edit source]

In the "Official Toki Pona Dictionary" section, the book Toki Pona: The Language of Good defines e as:

PARTICLE  (before the direct object)

sitelen pona[edit | edit source]

The sitelen pona glyph for e (󱤉) represents the heads of a double arrow symbol, facing rightwards along the standard writing direction. It is a reduplication of the glyph for li (li).

sitelen sitelen[edit | edit source]

The sitelen sitelen glyph for e (e) is a container for the direct object of unclear origin. It may be rotated. It is not placed inside the li container. [4]

Like with any monosyllabic word, it may also optionally be written with a syllable glyph (E), although this is not common with e.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. See Hopper, Paul J., and Sandra A. Thompson. “Transitivity in Grammar and Discourse.” Language, vol. 56, no. 2, 1980, pp. 251–99. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/413757. Accessed 16 Jan. 2024.
  2. jan Lakuse, "luka waso pi nena taso" (2023) utala pona http://utala.pona.la/toki-en-lipu/toki-lili.html#luka-waso-pi-nena-taso
  3. mun Kekan San, "jan mun" (2023) utala pona http://utala.pona.la/toki-en-lipu/lipu-suli/jan-mun.html#sitelen-Lasina
  4. Gabel, Jonathan (n.d.). Direct Objects. jonathangabel.com. Retrieved 13 July 2024.

Further reading[edit | edit source]

Resources[edit | edit source]

Dictionaries[edit | edit source]