Motivations[edit | edit source]
Many tokiponists do not use jan as a headnoun, and some do not identify with jan altogether. This suggests that the concept of jan could be incomplete. The specifics of human nature and personhood are also controversial in general.
Strategies[edit | edit source]
Head dropping[edit | edit source]
jan can sometimes be dropped when used as the head of a noun phrase. For example, jan mute is reduced to mute, and jan ale o is reduced to ale o.
ijo[edit | edit source]
Some speakers replace jan with ijo. While English words like "thing" and "object" are chiefly inanimate, users of this strategy argue that the same does not apply to the Toki Pona word ijo. A better translation of this usage is "being".