International Phonetic Alphabet

    From sona pona
    (Redirected from IPA)

    The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a phonetic notation system.

    In sitelen Lasina, letters have about the same sounds as in the IPA. Vowels are ideally a bit more centralized in Toki Pona than their IPA letters suggest. See Phonology.

    Transcriptions in the IPA use 2 main kinds of brackets:

    • Square brackets mark pronunciation. Phonetics can be transcribed broadly or narrowly.
    • Slashes mark phonemic notation. A phoneme is a feature that distinguishes one word in a language from another. Symbols in phonemic notation can diverge from their phonetic values. For example, the English r phoneme can be written as /r/, even though phonetically, [r] would represent a trill.

    Toki Pona chart[edit | edit source]

    Labial Coronal Dorsal
    Nasal m n
    Stop p t k
    Fricative s
    Approximant w l j
    Front Back
    Close i u
    Open ä

    Full chart[edit | edit source]

    IPA chart 2020.svg

    Consonants[edit | edit source]

    Pulmonic consonants (voiceless · voiced)
    Bi­labial Labio­dental Dental Alveolar Post­alveolar Retro­flex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn­geal Glottal
    Plosive p b t d ʈ ɖ c ɟ k ɡ q ɢ ʔ
    Nasal m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ ɴ
    Trill ʙ r ʀ
    Tap or flap ɾ ɽ
    Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ ħ ʕ h ɦ
    Lateral fricative ɬ ɮ
    Approx­imant ʋ ɹ ɻ j ɰ
    Lateral approx­imant l ɭ ʎ ʟ
    Non-pulmonic consonants
    Other consonants (voiceless · voiced)
    ʍ w Labial–velar fricative / approximant
    ɥ Labial–palatal approximant
    ʜ ʢ Epiglottal fricative
    ʡ Epiglottal plosive
    ɕ ʑ Alveolo–palatal fricative
    ɺ Alveolar lateral flap
    ɧ Simultaneous ʃ and x

    Vowels[edit | edit source]

    Vowels (unrounded · rounded)
    Front Central Back
    Close i y ɨ ʉ ɯ u
    ɪ ʏ ʊ
    Close-mid e ø ɘ ɵ ɤ o
    Open-mid ɛ œ ɜ ɞ ʌ ɔ
    æ ɐ
    Open a ɶ ɑ ɒ

    Diacritics[edit | edit source]

    ◌̥ ◌̬ Voiceless, voiced
    ◌ʰ Aspirated
    ◌̹ ◌̜ More rounded, less rounded
    ◌̟ ◌̠ Advanced, retracted
    ◌̈ ◌̽ Centralized, mid-centralized
    ◌̩ ◌̯ Syllabic, non-syllabic
    ◌˞ Rhoticity
    ◌̤ ◌̰ Breathy voiced, creaky voiced
    ◌̼ Linguolabial
    ◌ʷ ◌ʲ ◌ˠ ◌ˤ Labialized, palatalized, velarized, pharyngealized
    ◌̴ Velarized or pharyngealized, as in ɫ
    ◌̝ ◌̞ Raised, lowered
    ◌̘ ◌̙ Advanced tongue root, retracted tongue root
    ◌̪ ◌̺ ◌̻ Dental, apical, laminal
    ◌̃ Nasalized
    ◌ⁿ ◌ˡ ◌̚ Nasal release, lateral release, no audible release

    Suprasegmentals[edit | edit source]

    ˈ◌ Primary stress
    ˌ◌ Secondary stress
    ◌ː Long
    ◌ˑ Half-long
    ◌̆ Extra-short
    ◌ | Minor (foot) group
    ◌ ‖ Major (intonation) group
    . Syllable break
    Linking (absence of a break)

    Tones and word accents[edit | edit source]

    Tones and word accents
    Level Contour
    ◌̋ ˥ Extra high ◌̌ ˩˥ Rising
    ◌́ ˦ High ◌̂ ˥˩ Falling
    ◌̄ ˧ Mid ◌᷄ ˧˥ High rising
    ◌̀ ˨ Low ◌᷅ ˩˧ Low rising
    ◌̏ ˩ Extra low ◌᷈ ˧˦˨ Rising–falling
    ꜜ◌ Downstep ↗︎ Global rise
    ꜛ◌ Upstep ↘︎ Global fall