sin

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sin in sitelen pona
sin in sitelen sitelen
Pronunciation /sin/ 🔊 🔊
Usage 2023: Core (99% → )2022: Core (99%)
Book and era nimi pu ("synonym" in pu)
Part of speech Content word
Codepoint 󱥝 U+F195D

sin is a core content word relating to newness, novelty, and renewal.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The word sin is derived from Chinese (pinyin: xīn), meaning "new".[1]

Semantic space[edit | edit source]

The semantic space of sin includes new, fresh, and young things, as well as the concept of newness itself. When used as a transitive verb, sin may refer to making something new, renewing it, or refreshing it.

nasin ni la mi sin 

nasin ni la mi sin.

We're new to this method.

When used to modify a verb, sin can mean again, anew.

jan lawa li tawa sin e luka ona

jan lawa li tawa sin e luka ona[2]

The leader moved their hand again.
(literally, "the leader moved again their hand")

Compared to related words[edit | edit source]

In the in Toki Pona: The Language of Good, sin and namako ("spice, extra") were presented as synonyms. As such, many speakers include senses such as "extra" and "additional" under the semantic space of sin. The phrase nimi sin is an example of such use. Other speakers keep the words split and reserve those senses for namako, with sin only describing things based on recency and not additionality.

poki li lon tomo sin 

poki li lon tomo sin.

The boxes are in the annex (additional room).

poki li lon tomo namako 

poki li lon tomo namako.

The boxes are in the annex (additional room).

majuna ("old") is an uncommon pre-pu antonym for sin. Despite this heavy specialization of sin and the many related words around it, youngness is often instead described using lili.

pu[edit | edit source]

In the "Official Toki Pona Dictionary" section, the book Toki Pona: The Language of Good defines sin as:

ADJECTIVE  new, fresh; additional, another, extra

ku[edit | edit source]

For Toki Pona Dictionary, respondents in ma pona pi toki pona translated these English words as sin:[3]

new5, newly5, fresh5, back (i.e. as before or returned)2, again2, unprecedented2, innovative2, modern2, another2, additionally2, recent2, repeat2, innovation2, young2

sitelen pona[edit | edit source]

The sitelen pona glyph for sin (󱥝) depicts three short lines, in the form of a starburst missing the bottom ray. The exact meaning is unclear. The glyph may represent something popping into existence, to the opposite effect of weka. Due to the merger with namako, the glyph for sin may also represent a few flakes of a spice. The shape also evokes a pile of something extra being added on top, which occurs in stacked glyphs.

sitelen sitelen[edit | edit source]

The sitelen sitelen glyph for sin is derived from the syllable glyph for sin with the glyph for i being enlarged and bubblified.

Related words[edit | edit source]

namako[edit | edit source]

namako in sitelen pona
namako in sitelen sitelen
Pronunciation /ˈna.ma.ko/ 🔊 🔊
Usage 2023: Widespread (70% ↘︎ )2022: Widespread (75%)
Book and era nimi ku suli ("synonym" in pu)
Part of speech Content word
Codepoint 󱥸 U+F1978

namako is a widespread content word and pre-pu nimi ku suli relating to spices and embellishments. It was presented as a "synonym" of sin in Toki Pona: The Language of Good.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Word Origins. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Toki Pona.
  2. jan Sepulon. (1 March 2023). "ilo wawa". utala musi pi ma pona.
  3. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 341.

Further reading[edit | edit source]