From sona pona, the Toki Pona wiki
sin in sitelen pona
sin in sitelen sitelen
Pronunciation /sin/
Usage 2023: Core (99% → )2022: Core (99%)
Book and era nimi pu ("synonym" in pu)
Part of speech Content word
Codepoint 󱥝 U+F195D

sin is a core content word relating to newness, novelty, and renewal.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The word sin is derived from Chinese (pinyin: xīn), meaning "new".[1]

Semantic space[edit | edit source]

The semantic space of sin includes new, fresh, and young things, as well as the concept of newness itself. When used as a transitive verb, sin may refer to making something new, renewing it, or refreshing it.

nasin ni la mi sin

nasin ni la mi sin.

We're new to this method.

It may refer to repeating an action or acting it once more, when used as a modifier.

o toki sin

o toki sin.

Repeat that (lit. 'Say that again').

jan lawa li tawa sin e luka ona

jan lawa li tawa sin e luka ona.[2]

The leader moved their hand again.

Compared to related words[edit | edit source]

In the in Toki Pona: The Language of Good, sin and namako ("spice, extra") were presented as synonyms. As such, many speakers include senses such as "extra" and "additional" under the semantic space of sin. The phrase nimi sin is arguably an example of such use. Other speakers keep the words split and reserve those senses for namako, with sin only describing things based on recency and not additionality.

poki li lon tomo sin 

poki li lon tomo sin.

The boxes are in the annex (additional room).

poki li lon tomo namako 

poki li lon tomo namako.

The boxes are in the annex (additional room).

majuna ("old") is an uncommon pre-pu antonym for sin. Despite this heavy specialization of sin and the many related words around it, youngness is often instead described using lili.

pu[edit | edit source]

In the "Official Toki Pona Dictionary" section, the book Toki Pona: The Language of Good defines sin as:

ADJECTIVE  new, fresh; additional, another, extra

ku[edit | edit source]

For Toki Pona Dictionary, respondents in ma pona pi toki pona translated these English words as sin:[3]

new5, newly5, fresh5, back (i.e. as before or returned)2, again2, unprecedented2, innovative2, modern2, another2, additionally2, recent2, repeat2, innovation2, young2

sitelen pona[edit | edit source]

The sitelen pona glyph for sin (󱥝) depicts three short lines pointing up and to the sides, in the form of a starburst missing the bottom ray. The exact meaning is unclear. The glyph may represent something popping into existence as opposed to weka. Similarly, it may be based on short emanating lines in cartoons, which indicate "that something is spanking new" or as good as new, occasionally called neoflects.[4]

Due to the merger with namako, the glyph for sin may also represent a few flakes of a spice. The shape also evokes a pile of something extra being added on top, which occurs in stacked glyphs.

sitelen sitelen[edit | edit source]

The sitelen sitelen word glyph for sin (sin) is a version of the syllable glyph for sin (SIN). By default, the word glyph is rotated a quarter turn and the i radical is drawn bigger, but they can be considered as the same glyph: the size of the i radical is in free variation regardless of whether it appears in a word glyph or a syllable glyph, and although less common, quarter turns are also within the limits of standard glyph variation.

Related words[edit | edit source]

namako[edit | edit source]

namako in sitelen pona
namako in sitelen sitelen
Pronunciation /ˈ
Usage 2023: Common4, Widespread6 (70% ↘︎ )2022: Widespread (75%)
Book and era nimi ku suli ("synonym" in pu)
Part of speech Content word
Codepoint 󱥸 U+F1978

namako is a common content word and pre-pu nimi ku suli relating to spices and embellishments. It was presented as a "synonym" of sin in Toki Pona: The Language of Good.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Word Origins". Archived from the original on 8 August 2002.
  2. jan Sepulon. (22 July 2023). "ilo wawa". utala musi pi ma pona.
  3. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 341.
  4. Walker, Mort. (22 July 2000). The Lexicon of Comicana. ISBN 9780595089024. p. 29.

Further reading[edit | edit source]