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Semiparticles or pseudo-particles are a part of speech which may act either as content words and particles in different circumstances. Examples include ala, kin, nanpa, and taso.

a[edit | edit source]

The word a is a particle, which may also be analyzed as a modifier or content word in situations where it is used to emphasize a specific phrase in a sentence, similar to how kin and taso are commonly analyzed. This analysis is especially relevant in in styles of speech that use li after mi a or sina a (e.g. prefering mi a li wawa over the sentence mi a wawa), or styles where a is used in pi phrases (e.g. jan pi lili a). See also: a § Controversy

ala[edit | edit source]

The word ala is a negative particle, used to negate the phrase preceding it. It may also be used as a content word, meaning "nothingness, void". The particle may be used to negate preverbs in a way different from other modifiers.

mi wile ala tawa 

mi wile ala tawa.

I don't want to go.

mi wile tawa ala 

mi wile tawa ala.

I want to not move.

nanpa[edit | edit source]

The word nanpa is a content word meaning "number". It serves also as a particle used to form ordinals. For example, jan nanpa wan means "person number one", or "first person". It generally cannot occur as the head of a phrase, where it would be interpreted as a content word.

taso[edit | edit source]

The word taso is a content word meaning "only, merely, alone". It also serves as a sentence-initial particle meaning "but".

Further reading[edit | edit source]

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