Particles

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In Toki Pona grammar, a particle is a word with no semantic meaning that marks the grammatical structure of a sentence. Particles are crucial to forming understandable sentences. li, e, o, and la are taught in that order in Toki Pona: The Language of Good[1] and many other resources.

Particles can be one of the main challenges of adapting from English to Toki Pona grammar. However, the concept is not unique to Toki Pona; many natural languages have grammatical particles.

pu[edit | edit source]

These nimi pu are particles:

Sentence-structuring[edit | edit source]

Particle Follows Introduces
e A direct object
en A subject Another subject
la A context phrase or clause The main clause
li
  • The subject
    (unless there is only one, and it is only mi or only sina)
  • Another predicate
A predicate
o The predicate of a command or hope
pi A phrase A multi-word modifier phrase

Other[edit | edit source]

Nonstandard[edit | edit source]

Caution: The subject of this section is nonstandard and will not be understood by most speakers.
It is recommended to familiarize yourself with the standard style, and to be informed and selective about which nonstandard styles you adopt.

These nimi sin are particles:

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Some speakers treat this particle as a content word.
  2. pu defines this as a particle, but also uses it as a content word.

References[edit | edit source]