|Pronunciation||/jo/ (listen)/j/ sounds like Y, as in|
"fjord" or "hallelujah".
|Usage||2023: Core (99% ↗ )|
2022: Core (98%)
|Book and era||nimi pu|
|Part of speech||Content word|
jo is a core content word relating to ownership and possession.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
Semantic space[edit | edit source]
The semantic space of jo includes ownership and possession, but varies heavily between speakers.
jo cannot be used to calque every sense of the English word "have".
Some proficient speakers limit the use of jo to direct physical possession, such as holding or carrying something in one's hands, or a container enclosing another being. Such a container is often poki or tomo, but this is not always the case; lipu tenpo translates "(table of) contents" as jo.
Other speakers are more lenient with the definition of jo, extending it to more abstract cultural concepts of possession.
pu[edit | edit source]
VERB to have, carry, contain, hold
ku[edit | edit source]
have5, grasp2, equip2 , bring2 , grip2, possess5 , carry5 , contain4 , own4 , hold4 , possession4 , ownership4 , include3 , consist3 , comprise3
sitelen pona[edit | edit source]
The sitelen pona glyph for jo includes a circle for a person's head, connected to a G-shaped line with a horizontal stroke representing a hand. If the line is taken as the body, it represents a person bending over to grasp something. The line can also be interpreted as an arm extending at an angle at the shoulder.
References[edit | edit source]
- Word Origins. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Toki Pona.