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ko in sitelen pona
ko in sitelen sitelen
Pronunciation /ko/
Usage 2023: Core (99% ↗︎ )2022: Core (98%)
Book and era nimi pu
Part of speech Content word
Codepoint 󱤜 U+F191C

ko is a core content word relating to semi-solid objects.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The word ko is derived from Cantonese (Jyutping: gou1), meaning "paste, cream".[1]

Semantic space[edit | edit source]

The semantic space of ko includes semi-solid objects, such as pastes and powders, which consist of solid objects or particles, which do not resist change to its form. This covers many concepts that are expressed through multiple words in different languages.

Linguist lipamanka argues that ko covers all of these substances as the amount of moisture in them is independent to its semantic space.[2][3]

jan li pali e poki tan ko 

jan li pali e poki tan ko.

People make pots out of clay.

pu[edit | edit source]

In the "Official Toki Pona Dictionary" section, the book Toki Pona: The Language of Good defines ko as:

NOUN  clay, clinging form, dough, semi-solid, paste, powder

ku[edit | edit source]

For Toki Pona Dictionary, respondents in ma pona pi toki pona translated these English words as ko:[4]

goo5, semisolid5, paste4, powder4, clay3, sand2, dust2, substance2, cream2, dough2, mud2

sitelen pona[edit | edit source]

The sitelen pona glyph for ko (󱤜) represents a lump of moldable material, or a splash of goo. It is drawn as a closed, blobby shape, and it does not have a fixed shape. It may be drawn in any way as long as it is recognizable. The most commonly used shapes are roughly similar to a five-pointed star.

Several fonts have support for multiple alternative versions of the glyph. The following example is from linja lipamanka:

ko ko1 ko2 ko3 ko4 ko5 ko6

The glyph is sometimes drawn with one or more invected cusps, in extreme cases resembling a petaled flower.

sitelen sitelen[edit | edit source]

The sitelen sitelen word glyph for ko (ko) is the same as the syllable glyph for "ko" (KO).

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Word Origins". tokipona.org. Archived from the original on 8 August 2002.
  2. lipamanka. "toki pona dictionary". lipamanka.gay.
  3. lipamanka. (20 February 2024). "semisolids in toki pona: what is ko?". lipamanka [@lipamanka]. YouTube. Retrieved 21 February 2024.
  4. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 252.

Further reading[edit | edit source]