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anpa in sitelen pona
anpa in sitelen sitelen
Pronunciation /ˈ
Usage 2023: Core (99% → )2022: Core (99%)
Book and era nimi pu
Part of speech Content word
Codepoint 󱤅 U+F1905

anpa is a core content word, used as a spatial word, relating to something physically lowered, and figuratively, to the lowering of one's standing.

Etymology[edit | edit source]

The word anpa is derived from Acadian French en bas, meaning "below".[1]

Semantic space[edit | edit source]

The semantic space of anpa, when used as a spatial word, includes spaces and objects physically lowered or those below or beneath something else.

mi lon anpa supa

mi lon anpa supa.

We are under the furniture.

o anpa e luka sina

o anpa e luka sina.

Lower your hand.

Figuratively, anpa includes a lower place in a social hierarchy and submission to another entity, as in bowing or praying. This can include defeat in any sort of utala, and associated feelings like shame.[2]

sina en mi li anpa tawa sewi

sina en mi li anpa tawa sewi.[3]

You and I are lowly from the perspective of God.
We bow towards God.

musi sike suli la kulupu loje li kama anpa 

musi sike suli la kulupu loje li kama anpa.

At the important ball game, the red team lost.

Difference from noka[edit | edit source]

When used in prepositional phrases, anpa and noka may have synonymous or distinct meanings, depending on the speaker. The phrase lon anpa is more common for "at the bottom (of)".

pu[edit | edit source]

In the "Official Toki Pona Dictionary" section, the book Toki Pona: The Language of Good defines anpa as:

ADJECTIVE  bowing down, downward, humble, lowly, dependent

ku[edit | edit source]

For Toki Pona Dictionary, respondents in ma pona pi toki pona translated these English words as anpa:[4]

down5, bottom4, lower4, defeat3, below3, beneath3, under2, bow2, underlying2

sitelen pona[edit | edit source]

The sitelen pona glyph for anpa (󱤅) is derived from the open box radical with a location dot placed beneath it. Compare the glyphs for other spatial words—insa, monsi, sinpin, poka, as well as the secular version of sewi.

sitelen sitelen[edit | edit source]

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References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Word Origins". Archived from the original on 8 August 2002.
  2. lipamanka. "toki pona dictionary".
  3. Lang, Sonja. (25 May 2014). Toki Pona: The Language of Good. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292300. OCLC 921253340.
  4. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 201.

Further reading[edit | edit source]