(Redirected from parts of speech)
Toki Pona is commonly analyzed as having the following parts of speech:
- content word
- A word with semantic value (meaning). Depending on its position relative to other words in the sentence, a content word can act as a noun, verb, or modifier.
- In pu's dictionary section, these words are defined as adjectives, nouns, or verbs. ku notes that a content word analysis "may be more appropriate or accurate", recommending the analysis by u/pisceyo (kala kala) on lipu Wesi.
- A word with no semantic value (meaning), which marks the grammatical structure of a sentence.
- A content word that can introduce a prepositional phrase when other content words follow it. Its preposition sense may have a different meaning from its general content word sense. In standard Toki Pona, prepositional phrases are not marked with any particle.
- pre-verb or preverb
- A content word that can act as an auxiliary verb when placed before the main verb of a sentence (or before another preverb). Its preverb sense may have a different meaning from its general content word sense. Preverbs generally make distinctions in grammatical mood or aspect. In standard Toki Pona, preverbs are not marked with any particle (see Preverb marking).
- (proper) name or proper adjective
- A content word that represents a name or loanword. In standard Toki Pona, a name is a modifier that requires a common content word before it, instead of being a proper noun. It is specially marked depending on the writing system: capitalized in sitelen Lasina, written in a cartouche in sitelen pona, and written as syllable glyphs in a cartouche in sitelen sitelen.
- A content word that can act as a numeral. Its number sense may have a different meaning from its general content word sense. In a well-known number system, adjacent numbers are added up instead of acting as modifiers.
- A word that acts like a particle, but has semantic value (meaning) or can also be used as a content word.
- A word or phrase that is used outside of a full sentence, as an exclamation or phatic expression.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Glossary, a dictionary of terms that describe English and Toki Pona grammar