A part of speech is a category of words that have shared grammatical properties.
The book Toki Pona: The Language of Good defined words according to English-like parts of speech. However, as content words are interchangeable between noun, verb, and adjective usage. This mostly only affects their semantic spaces rather than the words' grammatical properties.
The following classification for Toki Pona was first proposed on r/tokipona subreddit by user u/pisceyo (kala kala), and recommended by the Toki Pona Dictionary. It is more widely accepted than the previous classification.
Classification[edit | edit source]
- content word
- A type of word with semantic value (meaning). It may act as the head or modifier of a content phrase and be used in the predicate.
- A type of word which performs grammatical or syntactic functions and lacks semantic value or capacity to take on another part of speech.
Word classes[edit | edit source]
- A content word that can introduce a prepositional phrase when other content words follow it. Its preposition sense may have a different meaning from its general content word sense. In standard Toki Pona, prepositional phrases are not marked with any particle.
- A content word that can be placed before the main verb of a sentence (or before another preverb). Its preverb sense may have a different meaning from its general content word sense. Preverbs generally make distinctions in grammatical mood or aspect. In standard Toki Pona, preverbs are not marked with any particle (see Preverb marking).
- name or proper adjective
- A content word that represents a name or loanword. In standard Toki Pona, a name is a modifier that requires a common content word before it, instead of being a proper noun. It is specially marked depending on the writing system: capitalized in sitelen Lasina, written in a cartouche in sitelen pona, and written as syllable glyphs in a cartouche in sitelen sitelen.
- A content word that expresses a numeric value. Its number sense may have a different meaning from its general content word sense. In a well-known number system, adjacent numbers are added up instead of acting as modifiers.
- A type of word that acts like a particle, but has semantic value (meaning) or can also be used as a content word.
- A type of word or phrase that is used outside of a full sentence, as an exclamation or phatic expression.
See also[edit | edit source]
- Glossary, a dictionary of terms that describe English and Toki Pona grammar