Archaic words

From sona pona, the Toki Pona wiki
Caution: The subject of this article is historical information that is presented for completeness, and might not reflect current usage.

This is a list of archaic words, pre-pu words that have fallen out of use. They are widely not understood, and are mainly found through dictionaries that list them for completeness.

iki, i, and ipi[edit | edit source]

Pronunciation /ˈi.ki/
Usage 2023: Not notable (1% → )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (1%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era No book (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word
Pronunciation /i/
Usage 2023: Not notable (1% → )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (1%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era No book (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word
Pronunciation /ˈi.pi/
Usage 2023: Not notable (1% → )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (1%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era No book (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word

iki was the original third-person pronoun in Toki Pona,[1] replaced by ona within a year of the language's initial publication.[2] It was derived from Georgian იბი (igi).[3]

By March 2002, iki was deemed "too long and too similar to 'ike'" (see also ali), and the Yahoo group was polled to decide whether to change it.[4] Proposed replacements included i, ipi, and ona; the latter won a follow-up poll in May 2002.[5]

Whereas iki was once briefly used before becoming nonstandard, i and ipi never entered common use at all, and are mainly hypothetical words of alternate histories. Later speakers have experimented with redefining the early pronouns to differentiate them from ona, but this is not widely recognized.

sitelen pona[edit | edit source]

iki, i, and ipi were deprecated long before the creation of sitelen pona. Proposed glyphs have been created post-hoc and included in some fonts. This may be to allow quotations of very early Toki Pona to be written in sitelen pona text, to support experimental modern usages, or merely for the sake of giving each word a unique glyph.

Proposed unique glyphs for iki (iki) and ipi (ipi) are derived[by whom?] by turning and flipping ona (ona).

A proposed unique glyph for i (i) is a horizontal line, likely representing iki truncated at the first part (syllable or glyph element). It is newer than the aforementioned glyphs, and may have been designed by jan Lepeka for her fonts.[citation needed…]

In practice, it is unlikely that these glyphs see significant use. Other fonts alias the words to the glyph for ona, treating them as historical and hypothetical variants thereof; this has some precedent in aliasing ali to the glyph for ale. Speakers also increasingly flip the glyphs for mi, sina, and ona, rendering ipi and iki variants of ona in that style.

kan[edit | edit source]

Pronunciation /kan/
Usage 2023: Obscure (4% ↘︎ )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (7%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era nimi ku lili (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word

kan is an obscure early word used to mean "together"[6] or as a preposition meaning "with the company of";[7] it could also separate subjects of a sentence, in addition to en.[8] It was abolished in November 2002 in the same reform that established the modern system for en.[7][9]

mi kan sina.

I am with you.[7]

mi mute li kan ala. mi mute li lon ma ale.

We [are] scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.[10]

jan ale li kan ala jan, li lon ma mute.

[Everyone was] scattered abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth.[10]

The etymology of kan is uncertain.[11] nimi ale pona claims that it might be from Finnish kanssa, meaning "with", or Esperanto kun "with", itself from Latin cum.[12]

A proposed sitelen pona glyph for kan (kan) depicts two generic things together. It consists of a circle, from ijo (ijo), in front of another circle to the upper right, which it partly occludes. It was designed by nimi Elemenopi in July 2020.[13][14]

kapa[edit | edit source]

Pronunciation /ˈka.pa/
Usage 2023: Not notable (1% ↘︎ )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (2%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era No book (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word

kapa is a marginal early version of nena. It was coined by jan Sonja and was used as far back as the first publicly available dictionary from March 2002. It was replaced by nena in June of the same year.

The etymology of kapa is unknown. Possibilities include Dutch kop and Esperanto kapo, itself from Latin capus, all meaning "head".[12]

A proposed sitelen pona glyph for kapa (kapa) seems to depict a mountain capped by snow, or a pointed shape with the tip highlighted.

jalan[edit | edit source]

Pronunciation /ˈja.lan//j/ sounds like English Y, as in "fjord" or "hallelujah".
Usage 2023: Not notable (1% → )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (1%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era No book (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word

jalan is a marginal early version of noka. It was proposed in 2002 by jan Sonja, because she struggled with memorizing it.[15] The word is derived from Finnish jalan, meaning "on foot", which is the genitive singular form of jalka ("foot").[16]

This proposal was rejected by a vote, resulting in 1 vote for jalan and 3 votes for keeping noka.[17] Despite being deprecated and obsolete, a small number of speakers have attempted to revive and distinguish jalan.[18] According to jan Lakuse, jan inwin uses it to mean "to go afoot".[15]

jan Sonja humorously recounted:[15]

I kept forgetting the word for noka in the beginning and then I asked people like, “Can we please change noka to jalan?” And everyone was like, “No, no, we’ve already established that noka is foot.” I was like, “Okay, so forget about jalan” and I come back to the community 20 years later and people have found jalan in some old post and they’ve added it to the dictionary.

A proposed sitelen pona glyph for jalan (jalan) depicts a boot-shaped leg facing left, which is a mirrored version of the glyph for noka. This mirrored glyph is also used for the joke word loka.

pasila[edit | edit source]

Pronunciation /ˈpa.si.la/
Usage 2023: Obscure (3% ↘︎ )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (4%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era No book (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word

pasila is an obscure early version of pona, with emphasis on the meaning of "easy". It was coined by jan Sonja before 2001, but removed before the first publicization of Toki Pona,[19] making it more of a proto-word that is only used in experimental revival attempts. It is derived either from Acadian French facile or Esperanto facila, both meaning "easy".[12]

A proposed sitelen pona glyph for pasila (pasila) combines pona (pona) with a hand radical, similar to pali (pali) and kepeken (kepeken). The hand radical is possibly meant to imply a connection between work (pali) and easiness, as both are related to effort.

pata[edit | edit source]

Pronunciation /ˈpa.ta/
Usage 2023: Obscure (4% ↘︎ )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (5%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era nimi ku lili (pre-pu)
Part of speech Content word

pata is an obscure word for "sibling".[20] It was removed by jan Sonja around February 2002, after she returned from a break.[21] The phrases jan sama ("similar person") or jan pi mama sama ("person of the same parent") are generally appropriate as equivalent to pata.[22]

A proposed sitelen pona glyph for pata (pata) combines elements of the glyphs for jan sama (jan sama).

The sitelen sitelen word glyph designed by jan Alonola

An experimental sitelen sitelen word glyph for pata was designed by jan Alonola for a poem in lipu tenpo nanpa sewi.[23] This glyph combines the word glyphs for jan (jan) and sama (sama), and could also be interpreted as a playful way to write jan sama or sama jan. The standard way to write pata in sitelen sitelen is by writing its syllable glyphs (PATA) enclosed in a capsule.

tuli and po[edit | edit source]

Pronunciation /ˈtu.li/
Usage 2023: Obscure (2% ↘︎ )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (4%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era nimi ku lili (pre-pu)
Part of speech Number, content word
Pronunciation /po/
Usage 2023: Obscure (5% → )Caution: Most speakers don't understand this word.2022: Obscure (5%)This word is deprecated.
Book and era nimi ku lili (pre-pu)
Part of speech Number, content word

tuli and po are obscure early number words meaning 3 and 4, respectively. In the modern advanced counting systems, they are equivalent to tu wan and tu tu.[24][25]

tuli is synonymous with san, a word that is more popular than tuli, but also nonstandard.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Sonja Lang. (18 July 2001). "Original lessons". bknight0.myweb.uga.edu.
  2. tokipona@yahoogroups.com (21 May 2002). Poll results for tokipona. Toki Pona Forums.
  3. "Word Origins". tokipona.org. Archived from the original on 8 August 2002.
  4. tokipona@yahoogroups.com (24 March 2002). New poll for tokipona. Toki Pona Forums.
  5. tokipona@yahoogroups.com (15 May 2002). New poll for tokipona. Toki Pona Forums.
  6. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 242.

    alongside1, together1, with1, associated½, involved½, amid½

  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 jan Sonja. (27 October 2002). "the words "en", "kin" and "kan"". Toki Pona Forums. Retrieved 2 December 2023.
  8. Sonja Lang. (6 May 2002). "greetings". Toki Pona Forums.
  9. tokipona@yahoogroups.com. (1 November 2002). "Poll results for tokipona". Toki Pona Forums. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Sonja Lang. (3 September 2002). "Religious Texts". tokipona.org. "ma tomo Pape".
  11. "Word Origins". tokipona.org. Archived from the original on 8 August 2002.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Moniz, C. Ryan (jan inwin); van der Meulen, Spencer H. (jan Pensa); lipamanka. (8 October 2020). "nimi ale pona (2nd ed.)". Google Docs.
  13. nimi Elemenopi [u/ElemenopiTheSequel]. (26 July 2020). "I made a sitelen pona glyph for every non-pu word in the "nimi ale pona" dictionary". r/tokipona. Reddit. Retrieved 28 December 2023.
  14. nimi Elemenopi [u/ElemenopiTheSequel]. (15 August 2020). "Here are the official glyphs for the 1b words in the NA". r/OffThePu. Reddit. Retrieved 28 December 2023. "[Key: black] = original, made by me".
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 jan Sonja, jan Lakuse, et al. (8 April 2024). "Toki Pona: From Personal Art Project to Small World Language". University of Colorado Boulder. tokipona.org (transcript).
  16. tokipona@yahoogroups.com. (24 March 2002). "New poll for tokipona". Toki Pona Forums. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  17. tokipona@yahoogroups.com. (6 May 2002). "Poll results for tokipona". Toki Pona Forums. Retrieved 13 May 2024.
  18. jan Imi (1 September 2021). "o jalan!". In lipu tenpo nanpa kule (In Toki Pona). lipu tenpo.
  19. lipamanka. "what is “pona?”". lipamanka.gay. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  20. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 319.

    sibling½, cousin½

  21. Sonja Lang. (2 July 2022). "New lessons coming soon!". Toki Pona Forums. Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  22. "Extinct words". lipu pi jan Pije. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  23. kulupu pi lipu tenpo (25 December 2023). lipu tenpo nanpa sewi (in Toki Pona). lipu tenpo.
  24. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 381.

    Data not found

  25. Lang, Sonja. (18 July 2021). Toki Pona Dictionary. Illustrated by Vacon Sartirani. Tawhid. ISBN 978-0978292362. p. 330.

    four½